14 - The Airlines in Hawaii
THE AIRLINES IN HAWAII
Within a few days of the December 7 attack, half of the United States airlines’ aircraft were turned over to the military which was short of transports and experience in conducting a scheduled military airline type of operation. Along with the aircraft went about half their people, including executives, to work with the armed services. All airports were taken over. In Hawaii, inter-island ships were placed on duty transporting troops into the Pacific. To meet a shortage of food on Oahu, Hawaiian Airlines (formerly Inter-Island Airways, Inc.), on March 20, 1942, was granted the unique position by the Civil Aeronautics Board of being the first scheduled U.S. carrier of air cargo. Two S-43s were converted to freight carriers (they airlifted more than one million pounds during the first year of operation). Transported between the islands were such items as beef and cattle on the hoof, ice cream, milk, fresh bread, household goods, newspapers, motion picture film, and laundry and dry cleaning.
As Pearl Harbor became more and more congested with ships in 1942, work was rushed by the Navy on the development of a seaplane harbor at Keehi Lagoon—site of Lawrence’s untimely demise in 1898. (In 1939, a Federal appropriation for $9 million had been authorized for this and other developments; the following year Congress authorized $3.3 million for the dredging of Keehi Lagoon; in 1941, $1.9 was authorized for the development of John Rodgers Airport in conjunction with the seaplane project.)
In 1943, the landplane area at John Rodgers Airport was filled with spoil from seaplane dredging and three runways were completed. The Army also started an extensive construction program. Next year, the Navy completed construction on John Rodgers Airport of a terminal building, control tower and hangars for aircraft operated by the Naval Air Transport Service. On November 16, 1945, Pan American Airways resumed commercial seaplane operations utilizing the terminal building built by the Navy. The airport was returned to the Territory of Hawaii on October 1, 1946, for operations and maintenance. Improvements and expansion projects were initiated to accommodate the expected heavy aircraft load. Civil air transportation boomed in the United States after World War II. Between 1945 and 1948, domestic (U.S.) route mileage increased from 8,000 to 28,000 miles. U.S. carriers were flown 100,000 route miles; passenger rates rose up to 25% each year, air freight increased from 15 million ton-miles in 1946 to 21 times that in 1953. As John Rodgers Airport, by common usage, became known as Honolulu Airport, the name was changed accordingly.
Due to the tremendous advances in air transportation during the war, civilian aviation was to permeate the world scene. Airlines began to move rapidly into trans-Pacific services. Requests for space at the Honolulu Airport were made by prospective trans-Pacific operators, including Pan American Airways, KNILM (Dutch Airlines), Far East Air Transport, Transocean Airlines, Samoan Area Airways, Philippine Airlines, United Air Lines, Australian National Airways; Matson Navigation Company, Pacific Overseas Airlines, and China National Aviation Corporation. The civilian aviation future for Hawaii was bright, but the main source of income initially was for fixed-base operators at Honolulu Airport. Thirteen fixed-base or non-scheduled flying services applied for airport space.
The Hawaii Aeronautics Commission was created in 1947 to control the airport and its expanding services.
A short history of Pacific airlines follows, for their story is also the story of Hawaii’s contemporary history.
First to make the Pacific crossings by way of Hawaii and other islands, through the years Pan American steadily increased its world services. The first Martin Clippers were augmented in 1941 by larger Boeing Clippers. On November 16, 1945, PAA resumed commercial operations with their Boeing Clippers which had been leased to the Navy during the war. Expansion continued. On the Atlantic side, PAA and Trans World Airlines merged in 1962 to create a financially strong U.S. flag trans-Atlantic carrier (to better compete with foreign carriers which, since 1950, had reduced the U.S. share of the trans-Atlantic market from 63% to 37%). In the Pacific during 1963, PAA inaugurated the first U.S. jet service to Tahiti. In 1964, they applied for permission to make direct flights from California to Hilo. To accommodate the expected influx of visitors, Big Islanders are busily preparing accommodations. This includes a jet runway, a $13 million resort area, a new airport terminal building, hotels, shops, and attractions. This direct air service is expected to increase the island’s economy, as occurred with Oahu.
At the same time, Pan American is making a bid to link the United States and Japan via Alaska, by passing Hawaii in a “modernization of the Pacific air structure.”
In September, 1940, Qantas Empire Airways was commissioned to fly a number of desperately needed PBY flying boats, ordered for the Royal Australian Air Force, to Australia from United States territory. For diplomatic reasons, delivery had to be a civil undertaking, as the aircraft had been ordered for an air force actively “at war,” while the United States at the time was neutral. One purchasing condition was that each aircraft should be flown to Honolulu under American command, and then it only should be handled by Australians. Sufficiently equipped with trained pilots and technicians, QEA was joined by Captain P. G. Taylor, famed navigator with Kingsford-Smith in the LADY SOUTHERN CROSS in 1934.
The first “Catalina” arrived in Honolulu from San Diego on the 26th after flying the 2,613 miles in 22 hours and 10 minutes. The American crew was replaced by Australians, including Taylor. They negotiated the next leg to Canton Island, 1,911 miles distant, in 14.16 hours. Departing Canton on January 30, 1,988 miles were crossed in 14.37 hours to Noumea, then through to Sydney (1,221 miles) in 9.17 hours, arriving February 2, 1941. A second delivery flight followed with aircraft A24-8 arriving in Honolulu on August 11, and leaving with its Australian crew two days later. Aircraft A-24-18 left Honolulu on October 17, 1941, on its delivery flight to Australia, stopping at Canton Island the same day, and then on to Suva. Instead of flying the usual route via Noumea, it was flown non-stop to Sydney. Two small bags of mail were placed aboard and the first non-stop Suva-Sydney flight was off. The plane covered the 2,025 statute miles in 17 hours and 9 minutes.
Upon Japan’s entry in the war, Pan American Clipper service from New Zealand was diverted, among other places, via Australia, but continued Japanese advances resulted in cessation of this service. In mid-1942, mails were flown across the Pacific by Britain’s Royal Air Force and by U.S. Army aircraft. A year later, the United States’ Air Transport Command began a regular service to England via the Pacific, followed similarly by the RAF Transport Command. These Pacific services ended in December, 1945, after which mails for Canada and the U.S. were sent through the United Kingdom.
British Commonwealth Pacific Airlines (BCPA) was incorporated in June, 1946, by the governments of Australia (50%), New Zealand (30%), and the United Kingdom (20%) to provide a service between Australia/New Zealand and San Francisco/Vancouver via Fiji, Canton Island and Hawaii. Until its own fleet and personnel could be acquired, the route was operated on a charter basis by Australian National Airways, a private company. Their first flight was in September, 1946, and continued operations until BCPA took over the route in April, 1948. In 1954, BCPA was acquired completely by Australia and integrated into Qantas, the first flight over the Pacific route leaving Sydney on May 15 in the Super Constellation VH-EAG. Qantas began the first jet air service across the Pacific on July 29, 1959, operating Boeing 707 jets (the first non-American airline to put the Boeings into service), cutting Pacific flying times by nearly half, with stops of one hour 40 minutes at Nadi, Fiji, and one hour 55 minutes at Honolulu.
PHILIPPINE AIR LINE
The Philippine Aerial Taxi Company was organized in December, 1930, to fly a shuttle service for mining businessmen. PATCO, flying Bellanca Skyrocket monoplanes, grew into a full-fledged airline and became the first scheduled carrier in the Far East. In 1940, PATCO ceased operations and Philippine Air Line was formed to operate on the former company’s franchise. The airline was incorporated on February 25, 1941, flying two Beechcraft Model 17 single-engine biplanes. World War II intervened in PAL’s regular growth, both in airplanes and routes, including a proposed service to Hong Kong.
Fig. 124. United jets grace the Hawaii scene, birthplace of UAL’s founder,
William A. Petterson.
In February, 1946, PAL started operations again, with five Douglas DC-3s, and other airplanes, but found two other airlines already in operation. That August, PAL chartered two four-engine Douglas DC-4s and opened international service to the United States’ West Coast, and to points in the Far East. At the end of the year, PAL delivered passengers to San Francisco, Oakland, Honolulu, Guam, Shanghai, Bangkok, and Singapore.
Steadily, PAL grew. On June 1, 1957, a viscount was introduced into the Manila-Hong Kong route, followed by a second then a third in 1959. Fokker F-27s were next in 1960. On June 20, 1962, the DC-8 made its first scheduled flight to the United States. Two years later, DC-4s were placed in trans-Pacific service.
UNITED AIR LINES
United Air Lines’ Honolulu service was initiated on May 1, 1947. That year, the average passengers carried on this route (total of both directions) was 2,100 per month. In 1964, the monthly average was 33,100. For the period May 1, 1947, through August 31, 1964, 1,917,749 passengers were carried on the Honolulu route alone. The cargo-carried monthly average (also total of both directions) went from 36,500 pounds in 1947 to 787,000 in 1964, totaling for the period May 1, 1947, through July 31, 1964, a total of 45,985,000 pounds.
When United Air Lines inaugurated Stratocruiser service from Hawaii to the mainland in 1950, Honolulu was linked directly with 87 mainland cities. In November, 1964, UAL installed in-flight movies for ocean-overflying passengers.
NORTHWEST ORIENT AIRLINES
Northwest began operating on October 1, 1926, flying airmail between Minneapolis/St. Paul and Chicago. Used were two rented planes, an OX-5 Curtiss Oriole and an OX-5 Thomas Morse, both open cockpit planes. The first “fleet” consisted of three 85-mph Stinson “Detroiters,” which carried three passengers (the first closed-cabin planes used by a commercial airline). Passenger service was inaugurated in July, 1927. That year the company carried 106 passengers.
In 1928, Northwest Airways began the route expansion that saw it develop in 20 years into Northwest Orient Airlines, now carrying about 2 ½ million passengers yearly. Service to Hawaii was inaugurated on December 22, 1948.
Northwest became a prime contractor in the Korean Airlift in 1950. Flying DC-4 aircraft, Northwest completed 1,380 Korean Airlift round-trip trans-Pacific crossings, more than 13 million miles. During this period they flew 40,000 soldiers and 12 million pounds of cargo across the Pacific at no interruption to their regular commercial trans-Pacific schedule of flights. Service was in DC-4 aircraft, on the Seattle/Tacoma-Portland-Honolulu routing. Stratocruisers were placed on the run subsequently, and in December, 1953, Northwest began service with DC-6Bs. DC-8 jets went into operation in September, 1960; service was interrupted by a strike and the present 720B service was begun in June, 1961. Northwest currently operates a daily round trip through-plane service linking New York, Chicago, Seattle-Tacoma, Portland and Honolulu.
CANADIAN PACIFIC AIR LINES
It was on July 13, 1949, that a 36-seat Canadair 4 took off from Vancouver for Sydney, Australia, via Honolulu. This was the inauguration of Canadian Pacific Airlines’ international service which now includes 38,000 miles in a route pattern linking 15 countries on five continents. The original 4,800-mile flight from Vancouver to Sydney took over 37 hours. It went via San Francisco, Honolulu, Canton Island (for refueling only) and Nandi, Fiji. Today’s aircraft do it in a little over half the time, though the route is slightly longer (8,600 miles) since Auckland, New Zealand was added late in 1951. Range of modern aircraft has eliminated the San Francisco routing and the refueling stop at Canton.
In 1950, the first full year of operation of CPA’s South Pacific route, there were only about 500 passengers in and out of Hawaii. The total has grown steadily, with marked increases recorded since 141-seat DC-8 jets were put on the route in March 1961.
Jet flying time for the 2,767-mile flight is only 5 ¾ hours non-stop, compared with 14 ½ hours in 1949 when the piston-engine Canadair 4 had to go via San Francisco.
During 1964, more than 25,000 passengers shuttled between Honolulu and Vancouver, and more Canadians are seeking Hawaii’s warm sun in the winter months, and many Hawaiian residents are visiting Canada with its scenery and fishing.
TRANS INTERNATIONAL AIRLINES
Trans International Airlines was founded in 1946, first among charter specializing carriers to offer pure jet aircraft exclusively in contract and charter service. Flights to Hawaii, Japan and the Philippines were inaugurated in 1950.
TIA is a major supplier of passenger and cargo transportation services for the U.S. government. At present, this service provides C-8 aircraft on regularly scheduled routes from the mainland to Hawaii, to Japan and to the Philippines.
JAPAN AIR LINE
Japan Air Line is a latter-day successor to Dai Nihon Koku, the first Japanese government-controlled airline, established in 1938. JAL was founded in August of 1951 with a charter fleet consisting of three Martin 202s and one DC-4. Only domestic flights were made then. Because Japanese airmen were not then authorized to pilot aircraft, the company operated for a time under a charter agreement with Northwest Airlines, which manned and maintained JAL’s small air fleet.
The new JAL emerged in essentially its present format when the Japanese Diet enacted the Japan Air lines Company Limited Law in October, 1953. Early in 1954, JAL broke loose from its domestic status by inaugurating a twice-weekly service over the Tokyo-Honolulu-San Francisco route and on the Tokyo-Okinawa run, to become Japan’s sole international flag carrier.
Acquiring long-range jets in 1960, JAL moved into the front rank of the world’s airlines.
Expanding steadily through the years, at last count JAL was servicing over 46,000 route miles with a fleet of 35 airplanes, more than half of them modern jets. In 1963, JAL carried more than a quarter million passengers over its international routes and 1.6 million domestically. Japan Air Lines currently provides trans-Pacific jet service to the United States 17 times a week. JAL also services Southeast Asia, Europe (via the North Pole and via the new “Silk Road” route, stopping at Hong Kong, Bangkok, Calcutta, Karachi, Cairo, Rome and Frankfort enroute to London), Okinawa, as well as domestic trunk routes within Japan Next on the JAL plan is a thrice-weekly jet service around the world.
Incorporated in 1948, World Airways began service to or through Hawaii during 1956 on a military transpacific contract. First to be used were DC-4 aircraft, changing to DC-6 and Constellation type aircraft in later years. On October 1, 1960, World entered a MATS trans-Pacific inter-island contract for passenger and cargo flights as follows; weekly round trips form Hickam AFB to Midway; two trips per week from Hickam to Johnston Island, Kwajalein Island, Eniwetok Atoll, and return to Hickam. In the spring of 1961, World Airways established charter service which, for the first time, involved group movements from West Coast gateway cities, and some inland points, each weekend to Maui.
In March, 1961, World entered into an agreement with Western Electric Company (contractor for the Pacific Missile Range) for air transportation on a scheduled basis between the West Coast, Honolulu and Kwajalein. Four months later, another transpacific contract was entered into for round trip transportation of passengers from Travis AFB, California, to Bangkok, Thailand via Honolulu, Guam, Philippines and Saigon. Other trans-Pacific contracts followed in 1963 adding Okinawa.
Boeing 707 jet aircraft joined the fleet in 1963, with World Airways becoming the first jet operator based at Oakland International Airport. That August, World flew a non-stop passenger flight from California to Japan in 9 hours and 58 minutes.
BRITISH OVERSEAS AIRWAYS CORPORATION
In 1924, four small private air carriers were amalgamated to form British Overseas Airways Corporation’s predecessor company, Imperial Airways. These were Handley Page Transport, Ltd; Instone Air Line, Ltd; Daimler Airways, Ltd; and the British Marine Air Navigation Co., Ltd. Included in their accomplishments were an experiment in airmail (1911) and the opening of the world’s first regular daily international passenger air service (1919). Imperial’s 1924 fleet included the first three-engine airliner, the 120 passenger biplane, “City of Washington. In its first year of operation, the new airline carried 11,395 passengers and flew 853,042 miles. Services were inaugurated from the United Kingdom to Africa, the Middle East, Asia and Australia. In May, 1937, Imperial opened a flying boat service between Bermuda and New York in parallel with Pam American Airways. Two months later, the “Caledonia,” an Imperial Airways flying boat, made the pioneer commercial survey flight across the Atlantic, east-to-west. Most of BOAC’s present 145,000-mile, six continent network of air routes were established by Imperial.
BOAC emerged as the national overseas airline of great Britain in 1939, British Airways for domestic flights and services between London and European cities (forerunner of BOAC’s present sister corporation, British European Airways). On April 1, 1940, the two were amalgamated.
During the war, BOAC flew more than 55 million miles throughout the world. After the war, BOAC began expanding its routes and services. The British European Airways Division of BOAC became a separate corporation and on August 1, 1946, took the United Kingdom/ continental services. In 1947, BEA also absorbed the domestic services within the UK.
On August 23, 1959, BOAC started making twice-weekly flights with jet-prop Britannias from New York, San Francisco and Honolulu to Tokyo and Hong Kong. Thus was inaugurated trans-Pacific service, linking up BOAC’s eastern flights to form the first round-the-world jet service. In 1960, the Britannia flights between San Francisco and London via New York and from San Francisco to Tokyo and Hong Kong were replaced by Boeing 707s. This completed BOAC’s first pure jet round-the-world service. A twice-weekly connecting service between U.S. points and the Philippines was inaugurated on November 2 with a Tokyo-Manila Comet 4 jet service, connecting in Japan with BOAC’s Boeing 707 “Jet Bridge” to the Orient. On March 26, 1962, Boeings were placed in service to Asia. During fiscal year 1962-63, BOAC accommodated nearly a million passengers and flew 2.8 billion passenger miles. Today, BOAC flies tri-weekly jets across the Pacific.
U.T.A. FRENCH AIRLINES
Transport Ariens Intercontinentaux was formed in 1946, serving a number of destinations in Africa but intent on increasing to the Far East and the Pacific. In May, 1960, T.A.I. opened a weekly schedule between Los Angeles and Tahiti via Honolulu with DC-7 aircraft. A year later, following inauguration of the jet landing strip in Tahiti, DC-8s were placed on the route, part of an 18,000-mile service introduced between Paris and Los Angeles via the Far East, Indonesia, Australia, New Caledonia and Tahiti.
Formed in 1949 with the participation of the Compagnie Maritime des Chargeurs Reunis, another French private airline was Union de Transports Ariens (U.T.A.) serving Africa. In 1963, the two companies merged to form U.T.A. French Airlines. Served are 118,000 miles of network and resources involving 43 destinations (six in Asia, eight in Oceania, two in America, six in Europe and 21 in Africa). In November, 1964, two non-stop weekly services between Papeete (Tahiti) and Los Angeles were inaugurated, by-passing Honolulu.
On September 2, 1964, Continental Airlines brought its first flight into Honolulu after flying from California to Japan, Philippines, and Guam, completing the initial survey flight of the MATS contract Pacific service. Honolulu was established as Continental’s largest overseas base.
Expected soon is the beginning of jet service between Auckland and Los Angeles by way of Honolulu of the New Zealand-based Tasman Empire Airways, Ltd. (T.E.A.L.), with DC-8 aircraft. T.E.A.L. started operations with an Auckland-Sydney flying boat service in 1940, Auckland to Fiji in 1950, extending the following year to Tahiti via Western Samoa. Exercising reciprocal rights, Pan American will send its airplanes through Auckland. T.E.A.L. was originally owned by three governments: New Zealand (30%), United Kingdom (20%) and Australia (50%). In 1953, the Australian government took over the British government’s interest, concurrently with the liquidation of BCPA. New Zealand took over full ownership in 1961.
During the war years, the airplane was the only means of inter-island transportation and Hawaiian Airlines boomed as thousands of people took to the air. However, United States control established by the military in Hawaii resulted in seats being allocated on a strict priority basis to passengers directly connected with the war effort. This system of control had its damaging effects on HAL immediately after the war, because islanders sometimes resented the military system of priorities. The way was clear for a second interisland service to be established.
Hawaiian Airlines continued to serve inter-island needs. On its 23rd anniversary, HAL acquired five new Convair 340s, the first pressurized aircraft in inter-island operation. Pioneer Stanley Kennedy retired from active management of the company in 1955, becoming Chairman of the Board. Under Arthur D. Lewis, former Vice-President of American Airlines, the company was completely reorganized to withstand better the effect of increasing competition and to prepare for expansion. The Convair’s seating capacity was increased by six. Four of the six DC-3s were converted for aerial sightseeing, provided with panoramic windows five feet in length and an increase in seating by three (from 28 to 31).
Shortly, HAL’s service included twice-weekly service form Honolulu to Midway Island, carrying 72 tons of cargo and passengers per month in contract with the Military Air Transport Service. Hawaiian Airlines next began seeking a trans-Pacific jet service.
During 1963, HAL carried 2,105,046 ton-miles of air freight delivering newspapers, laundry, household goods, eggs, chickens, perishable foods, and U.S. mail between the islands. November 11, 1964 marked 35 years of operation as a scheduled inter-island air transportation company, claiming the distinction of being one of the oldest scheduled air carriers in the United States and holder of the world’s safety record (carried throughout this period were eight million passengers without a single fatality to either passenger or crew member, and traveled over 1.2 million passenger miles).
In 1946, the Trans-Pacific Airlines (later renamed Aloha Airlines) was begun in Honolulu by Ruddy F. Tongg. Starting with 14 employees, the charter service began with a DC-3 equipped with “bucket seats,” in competition with HAL. The new company offered special appeal with in-flight entertainment featuring singing, hula dancing, and ukulele playing stewardesses.
By 1949, in spite of legal difficulties, the local inter-island flying service received its temporary certificate as a scheduled carrier. Olen Andrew became chief pilot and took charge of all flight operations.
A family plan service was established in 1950, followed later by discount fares. Japanese speaking tour conductors and stewardesses were hired to accord its passengers from Japan Service and typical island hospitality.
President Eisenhower signed Aloha’s permanent certificate on July 20, 1956. At the time it was operating five DC-3s.
Having arranged for Aloha’s purchase of Rolls-Royce powered F-27 jet–props, Olen Andrew returned to active flying in the new airplanes in 1959. Two Vickers Viscounts were placed into service in June, 1963, and a third early in 1964.
Now 19 years old, the airline has a perfect safety record of never a passenger or crew fatality in its history.
ANDREW FLYING SERVICE
Still actively in existence is the pioneer private flying service started in 1932, Andrew Flying Service. Olen Andrew officially retired from Aloha Airlines in 1964 and flies once again with the company bearing his name.
One of the Andrews’ distinctive services is regular flights to the isolated settlement on Molokai, started in 1946 when Marguerite Gambo went to the mainland. Twice-daily flights are made, and once on Sundays, bringing to that community perishable items and other useful articles that cannot be brought in otherwise. (A barge makes only three visits a year). In 1964 Andrew remarked, “We deliver anything to the people there—food, mail, the morning paper, the afternoon paper, laundry, refrigerators, Christmas trees, just about anything that will fit in an airplane.”
War saw the government ban all private flying, therefore the Andrew Flying Service, Gambo Flying Service, and all other private operations ceased. Marguerite Gambo, however, received special permission from the Civil Aeronautics Administration to continue making charter flights to Molokai’s Kalaupapa Settlement, bringing in supplies and medicines. After two delivery flights, the aviatrix accepted a CAA position on the mainland where she assisted in training Navy pilots. Her Honolulu hangar and shops were turned over to the military. In 1945 she returned to Hawaii to inaugurate ground school instruction at the University of Hawaii. Two years later, she went back into business with the Hawaiian School of Aeronautics, providing CAA approved flight training to veterans. The aviatrix remains active in flying circles today.
Fig. 135. John Rodgers Terminal, Honolulu International Airport, 1964.
CIVIL AVIATION SUMMARY
In the year preceding World War II, only 1,153 people came to Hawaii by air, which was roughly 1% of all visitors from the mainland. The fare was $278 and it took 16 hours one way. Following hostilities, the fare dropped to $195. In 1947, the mainland-Hawaii route could be flown in 12 ½ hours at a fare of $135. The fare was lowered in 1954 to $125 and the flying time to 7 ½ hours. Jets, in 1959, reduced the time to the present 4 ½ hours.
On August 22, 1962, Honolulu International Airport was dedicated following an expenditure of $34 million on new facilities. Taking the name of John Rodgers, then, was the airport terminal building. In 1963, Honolulu International Airport was ranked the 10th busiest airport in the United States. That year, aircraft operations (arrivals and departures) totaled 258,869 (including 144,697 military, with which it shares runways). Individual overseas passenger movements (arrivals and departures of individual travelers) amounted to 1,405,213, and 929,829 inter-island passenger movements. Fares had been reduced for some mainland-Hawaii flights to $100.
During 1964, Hawaii had 509,000 visitors, bringing the total over the half-million mark for the first time. This was about 80,000 more than in the previous year. The increase was more than twice the aggregate annual total of all visitors in 1950 (34,386). Other Pacific regions also showed gains that year. Tourists to New Zealand, who numbered 105,000 in 1963, were more than 120,000 in 1964. French Polynesia had 25,000 in 1964 compared to the previous year’s figure of 14,000, with half the tourists coming from the Untied States. Australia had 150,000 foreign visitors in 1964, a 23,000 increase over 1963. Travel both to and from Japan, the Philippines, Korea, Formosa and other points and the United States was up in 1964.
About 110,000 persons traveled through Hawaii from North America to points west in 1964, and about 100,000 stopped on their way from the South Pacific and the Far East. Hawaii received most of its foreign visitors from Canada, Japan, Australia, Europe and the Philippines—in that order.
Three important developments were responsible for the high traffic figures in Hawaii as of this writing—the cutting of travel time, the lowering of air fares, and a general increase in prosperity. In the next few years, a new supersonic airplane is expected to be introduced into service which will make it possible to fly between the mainland and Hawaii in 90 minutes. By 1970, according to the Hawaii Visitors Bureau, the bigger jets (offering $150 round-trip fares from the West Coast) will bring 900,000 visitors to Hawaii.